Tuesday, September 28, 2010

It is from records we learned that Nigerians came in touch with, merchandise initially. Next Religious nationalism. Later Imperial Government, politically. Before education, introduced for training citizens for the Imperial selfishness not to serve in the supply of trained, authentic work force to develop the Nigeria economy but imperial interest

It is from records we learned that Nigerians came in touch with, merchandise initially. Next Religious nationalism. Later  Imperial Government, politically. Before education, introduced for training citizens for the Imperial selfishness not to serve in the supply of trained, authentic work force to develop the Nigeria economy but imperial interest
THE ROOTS AND PROBLEMS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA BEFORE INDEPENDENCE AND AFTER INDEPENDENCE IN THE 21st century
                                                                           BY
                                       Ma’aji Caleb Zonkwa
                 (STAFF INSPECTOR TECHNOLOGY AND COMPUTER EDUCATION)
KADUNA STATE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
QUALITY ASSURANCE (INSPECTORATE) DEPARTMENT
JANUARY2005
 ABSTRACT
It is from records we learned that Nigerians came in touch with, foreign merchandise initially. Next is the arrival of Religious nationalism. Later control by the Imperial Government, politically. Before education being introduced for training citizens that will fill responsible post for the Imperial selfishness in different government departments but not to serve in the supply of trained, authentic work force (human resources) to develop the Nigeria economy but the imperial interest.
By 1973 to date, syllabuses brought to change mostly by educationists and official on institutional development. The concomitant effects on Vocational and Technical syllabus are blurring without much meaning to the economic and social development.       
Today, these syllabuses on Vocational and Technical do not reflect our present cultural exploitation by the new globalise industrial technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to review the Vocational and Technical Education to be more functional and meaningful.
 Rather than being control by national policies, education in Vocational and Technical should enable students to prepare for a meaningful adult life: by adopting different teaching strategies for a particular environment, workshop/laboratory, time, and finances.
CONTENTS                                                                                     PAGE
1.    Historical background from colonial period of vocational
education in Nigeria---3
                  = Scholars…..4
                  =Europeans…5
                  =Religion…5
                  =Outcomes observed on students’ behaviour7
2.    Teaching background of vocational (technical) subjects9
=Social discipline and modal development decisions for
    vocational subjects10
3.    land mark on vocational technical education by first
 quarter of 21st century11
4.   Effects of advance technology conflicting aims for our nation educational system 11
5.   conflicting aims for our nation educational system-13
6.   Achievement and reward for the Nigeria society in teaching methodology-13
7.   objective development in Nigeria vocational technical
education to other country--14
8.    Effects of advance technology---15
9.    presentment on problems and issues on economic
development--16

10  Concept of teacher in vocational technical education-16

11 Conclusion-17
12 REFERENCES--18
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FROM COLONIAL PERIOD OF VOCATIONA EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

Inferences must be made on history in order to conceive inherent factors that hinder development of vocational education in Nigerian Schools. It is from records and books (like Africa Origin of Greek Philosophy by one C.O.Innocent) we learned that initially Nigerians came in touch with: -
1.            “Foreign merchandise”. Then came
2.            “Religious nationalism (Missionaries = Counties Patriots and Religion); before
3.            Assumption of political control by the Imperial Government.

An overall Impression of John Holt (a Liverpool merchant) reporting on operational and political control of the British Administrators of colonies - to a clerk of the West Africa Shipping line on 13 day of July written in 1906 as a letter. – This will give us the fundamental background of the cases in study.  “Roots of problems (Political and Ethical) of vocational (technical) education in Nigeria Schools.”  This letter which appeared in Tamuni (1972:191) with reference E.O.M.P. F/8, Holt to Morel 13th July 1906 reads:  -
E.D. Morel,
”A lot of the young fellows sent into West Africa Colonies for the
 purpose of administration are wholly unfit for the job. They have
 neither age nor experience to qualify them, whilst they have
 unlimited ideas of their own self-importance and contempt for the
 natives, out of whose labour  they are living. They have only one
 idea of ruling and that is by force… and some check put to the
arrogance and intemperate use of power which these young
 people possess, and use to the destruction of life and property…”
- Emphases author’s
Even as Hillary (1956:141) noted, if schools were established and vocational education is introduced: “…it was that of fitting students to receive training which would enable them to fill responsible posts in different government departments but not to serve in the supply of trained, authentic manpower (human resources) to develop the economy”.

Arab migrants (traders and scholars) made matter un-conducive as they penetrated the Northern part of the Country with a perpetuated Quranic system of schooling ANPPCAN (1994:34), Fafunwa (1975) and Gunther (1954). Although Adamu (1978) informed us that it the fulanis who came with Arabic books on sciences of divinity and etymology supplementing the resources of scholars (between 1402-1463) who formerly possessed only work relating to law and traditions (which included vocational education). On this issue pointed by Adamu, Fafunwa highlighted that before these contacts, there existed various traditional forms of instruction, which were long established for community integration and growth of mutually meaningful identities which created better ways of thinking/behavior within a given community and society.

SCHOLARS
If a Country’s philosophy on education is generally accepted as theoretical basis about what educational system ought to do, and how to do it, which can never be neatly separated from it’s History (as William Shakespeare observed: “unnatural deeds bread unnatural troubles”). A reflection on all stand mentioned on administration by John Holt (on issues of vocational education = life and properties in page 13) can be examined to point only to one thing i.e mis–appropriation of needed foundations which tends to reflect in our schools today. Okoro (2000:28) supports this view of John Holt above.

Again, as Nigeria was on the making by amalgamation, scholars and young people from such administration, were not equipped with a basic understanding of the function of political system of the mixed economy especially manufacturing which create our national wealth. Sadly noted, Graig and Eston (1966) with Hillard that, there were “…point in History [of Nigeria] that multitudes of people in the Country have become say Engineers, Physicians, Lawyers or Civil Servants without having had the ethical equipment which could accompany these professions”.
EUROPEANS
The above phenomenon convulsed fermentation, where people thrown up from the bottom,  suddenly find themselves able to exert power through money, by the process of bribing their way up.  Sadly again, Tamuni (1972) wrote, even those Nigerians who were qualified as at 1911  (British trained) will not be accepted for employment as Engineers – and other technological posts ­ - for fear these young British staff spoken of by John Holt being unfit for public offices they were occupying.  It is also on record to support John Holt observation [only few of the British staff held university degrees] several were either on retention from the British armed services or retired soldiers – it is unfortunate.
This Jakada on concrete terms: supported John Holt and other scholars like Onyewuenyi (1987) in page 16/17 of New Nigeria Newspaper of Wednesday, 28th 2003; staing that, “… Western countries, in their attempt at solving their unemployment problems [e.g. the factory Act, regulating the intoterable condition of industrial labour in England that yield EVANGELICALS in the foundation of overseas missions in early 17th century, Easton 1966.] continue sending to us jobless lay-about and illiterate thugs with dubious abilities and questionable credential as experts in engineering, sciences and (administrators of education, today appearing as) election monitoring”.     
RELIGION
However, civilization conveyed different things to different societies at different times as Davidson (1967:306-13) stated, “religious nationalism started very early – indeed before the assumption of political control by imperial Government”. Tamuni (1972) and Wale (1962:83-103) also affirmed, the missionary societies have acted as the agents of social disintegration and the unobtrusive perpetuation of National Servitude. These went along according to Onyewunyi (1987:12-13) with their country men (Administrators of Colonies) to baptize … who might fall victim to the ‘right’ philosophy. This ‘right’ philosophy according to Onyewunyi again is “an English Philosophy propounded by one Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) that any sort of orders out of chaotic conflict of human will is force ….”  These they worked conscientiously to destroy all traditional sanction and unifying customs, and cultivated sham West ernism in the educated two percent. Though, it is regrettable as Olisa and Ikejiani-Clark (1989:29) and Onwoka (1956:111 – 113)  put it, this has pervaded in greater dimensions the cultivation of proper foundations on vocational education ever since, which today has its corollary in our backwardness in general education especially – Vocational.
The accusation made by Mohammed – Bello on Quranic Schools (a system of Islamic Education) that, “the purpose bequeath of these schools focused not to socialize pupils, or teach them basic learning skills such as writing, reading and arithmetic. But to enable them practice their religion and achieve happiness in this world and hereafter” (ANPPCAN 1994:31-2). The outcome effects as Thakur and Ezenne (1980) summarize, are that growth of pupils is impaired, they grow without affection, self-respect and often suffer from battering. A typical almajiri – Islamic name of Quranic student – is observed to be deviant, sick, dirty, poor, homeless, untaught, neglected and ill-treated. The aftermath of these sort of education as observed by the author (confirm also by Mustapha Adamu in the New Nigeria Newspaper of June 24, 2003 page 8) is that no reliable and manual skills are taught; the pupils grew up unskilled, and form a great number of urban unemployable in Northern states, towns and cities. At best the pupils are found in religious turbulence (unrest/uprising), beggars and deviants/cheats in motor parks, markets etc; the pupils of such schools are those roaming the streets unmonitored and unsupervised. At best if they will take to any vocation, it will be that of hawking. Even though since 1964, the[ Education law of] Northern Nigeria Government stipulated, “penalty for any body in the North who refused to register or ensure the attendance of his child to (Western) school ….” 

Similarly, by 1914, the Secretary of State, Mr. Harcourt, made the following accusation on the missionary system of education, which were on two main counts. These would further buttress the roots to our backwardness in vocational education. It is the record of related and subsequent interrelation of attitudes, which were generally admitted to have been unsatisfactory.  This he made and dispatched officially to London on April 4th 1914 namely: -
“… that the young men (students) are unreliable and lack integrity,
self control and discipline; that they show no respect for authority of
any kind and that a large proportion are ill educated…”
(students) author’s  addition
Supporting and in line with John Holt’s report to E.D. Morel in 1906 - bad governance giving birth to bad citizenry.  A comparative assessment was made by Professor J. A. Ajayi in his book – Christian Mission in Nigeria: 1841 – 1891, in which he quoted Professor S.D. Onabiro saying:-
“The Christian Missionaries set out ruthlessly to destroy, and largely
succeeded in destroying the traditional patterns of African private
and community life including those customs and taboos which
modern anthropologists now concede to have been useful in
ensuring the survival of the people as a race”.

OUTCOMES OBSERVED ON STUDENTS’ BEHAVIOUR
A Nigerian named Mr. Carr with 20 years experience in education matters of Southern Nigeria  as reported by Kirk – Greene (1970:125-7) wrote in August 1915 on the learning outcome of Missionary Schools:-
(a).    “… is their stock of positive knowledge is altogether inconsiderable on leaving school,
(b).    there is hardly a sign of the growth of mental power or of self-control
(c)         generally speaking, they are neither intelligent, nor reliable, not fitted for positions requiring independent judgment or resourcefulness”.
Listing and underlining, author’s
Education according to  Olisa, et al (1989:28) in Nigeria was under the complete control of missionary organization up to 1898.  However, AbduImaliki (1978:212) stated that earlier before 1898 “Education was introduced in Kano on secular bases.” This statement by AbduImaliki is supported by Adamu (1978) stating about the arrival of two outstanding scholars in Kano by 1495.
 Again, Mr. Carr highlighted on the reports from parents (in southern Nigeria) about the social behaviours of these Missionary schools products: -
(d)         “their parents are averse to allowing them away from their control for
(e)         When left alone they fall into divers temptations, ruin themselves and bring sorrow to their families”. – Listing, author’s
Frederick et al (N.P:350)  in his critique which was supported by Gunther (1954) and Grace (1994) made a powerful situational analysis agreeing with Okoro (2000) education to the individuals has brought to such men only discontent, suspicion of others and bitterness. As citizens they are unfitted to hold posts of trust and responsibility where integrity and loyalty are essential, or to become leaders of their community. These are individual who have acquired certificate without skills.  They have passed through the religious ivory towers without being (psychologically and professionally) prepared for any role in society other than mediocrity.  “Since indiscipline and vanity have been produced by the schools which had become intolerable and today affecting Nigerians in different perspective” Such as lacking in proper foundation of vocational education.
A philosopher’s constructive food for taught about what he expects of his child Emile, as properly growing:
“Emile to learn a trade that with any change of fortune he might be” independent economically, for its social value in recognizing the dignity of labour, in helping him to overcome the prejudices which otherwise he would acquired, and to aid generally in training the mind “-Jean Jacques Rousseau’s  (1712-78) on Vocational Education. – Encyclopedia Britannica Experience in putting theoretical knowledge into practice demand more time, energy and discipline that most Nigerians can afford: therefore they walk into safe jobs that devote on their profession. The time the British Government realized that they needed [Technically] trained Nigerians: this to run/manipulate  machineries that was purely for the imperial economical endeavour, Britain was forced to re-look outward; (even though, by 1700s Nigerian students, mostly Mulatto, [children with white and black parent] were sent to London for Education wrote Gunthel. In effect its educational policy of assistance to its colonies were re-brick by sending again some Nigerian students to England for training. By and by, Ladipo (1985:231 - 45) informed us about the subsequent British foreign policy and educational reforms from 1861-1950. These reforms according to Ladipo saw research station and institutions in Nigeria: with institutional development in science and technology by Sir Claude Macdonald in Lagos in 1893 setting up a botanical research station. Today in the present 21st century [i.e. since Macdonal effort 110 years ago]: it is hard to get committed Nigerians (in the science and technology education) because many of us in this country are observed to have underrated our civic teaching responsibilities to our government and mother land in particular.  
TEACHING BACKGROUND OF VOCATIONAL (TECHNICAL) SUBJECTS
These plans by Macdonald on institutional development (like the Southern Department of Agriculture in 1899 and the Northern Department of Agriculture in 1912 at Samaru)   failed to put-up the background for this important and profitable education. Because the research activities were started with major emphasis on export crops while work on food crops and maintenance of soil fertility was of secondary importance (Ladipo 1985:231 – 2). This had deprived us Nigerians with early interaction with science education and its vocational consequences. France encountered a similar problem in her colonies as stated by Watson (1981) Peacock (1980) and Graig (1966): to address these problem France introduced curricular [which was earlier bookish in her colonies and were not suited to the need of local populace] to meet the need of local educational policy. Watson and Peacock stated that paradoxically (situation displaying contradictory future): When the British and French Empires were restless, new foreign policies were in emergence. A keen competition led to new foreign educational policies and reform in West African colonies – both in governmental activities and religious nationalism, Stock (1899:45) and Oke (1936). The reforms saw the teaching of vocational technical subject in schools like Bonny Boys High School, in 1900; Hope Wadle Trainig institute, Calabar as well as Nasarawa School in 1909, (Okorie 2001). Eventually, the Yaba Higher College (now Yaba College of Technology) by the British Government in 1934 was being established for Technical Training.  Ma’aji (1984) noted that, the Technical Training presumed and promoted conformity; learning which had little to do with equipping pupils to lead a fuller life but conformist on a narrow sense.  For example, in 1913 the two boarding schools at Warri and Bonny according to Kirk – Greene (1968:147-87) had 151 adult ‘apprentices’  and 187 boys (these adults were associated with small boys with bad result).
SOCIAL DISCIPLINE AND MODAL DEVELOPMENT DECISIONS FOR VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS
Be that as it may, we cannot escape the conclusion that the real power for survival of any given social group (Nigeria with its attendant culture pattern-with almost 400 tribes as stated by Buhari, 2003:7) is the discipline with which its individual members set about the job of corporate living, with the intelligence  they bring to bear on the solution of immediate problems as mentioned by Okorie (2001) Okoro (2000) and Grace (1994) supporting Ma’aji (1997). The systematic presentations made by Okorie, Okoro and Grace in their text in respect of the topic, point conclusively:-
The ill disciplined, the impulsive will
seek quick or apparently ready-made
solutions or fall a prey to grandiose – Large and imposing
           but unpractical schemes.
These observations can be observed in the 1998 National Policy on Education of the position of Vocational Education. It is being praised and set on a pedestrian level; world apart from the 1986 National Policy on Science and Technology on educational system with the demand of our 1999 National Constitution on “…independent industrial capabilities”.
A French Sociologist named Le Bon Gustave (1841-1931) drew our attention on a serious note that the balance members of any social group will see well ahead and will cautiously feel their way through the building up of solid but slowly changing body of tradition”.

LAND MARK ON VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL EDUCATION BY FIRST QUARTER OF 21ST CENTURY
These educational practices are synthesis of principle of effective competency teaching that has emerged from research and experience, from schools and private organisations.  However, our discussions on this mentioned issue above should deal mainly with the fact that Technical and Vocational should not be taught for itself.  It is the vehicle of national values, but when taught they should be set in context, based on the real world, in favour of life, so as to give an ethical dimension to learning and to, the development of ‘learning to learn’, both on ones own and with others.    Evidently, we should focus our attention to the lack of infrastructures, the lack of teachers confronting many states with internal domestic problems to overcome for which support the nation essentially.
Therefore, contents of Vocational and Technical syllabuses in context should reflect organised effort.  These to make sure the adolescent students are able to demonstrate their mastery of certain minimum skills (at Senior Secondary level) needed to perform task they will routinely confront in adult life.

EFFECTS OF ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY
The last time the syllabuses Technical/Vocational were drafted, critique and printed out for use in schools is about 20 years ago with few adjustment that does not meet the yearning of Nigerian citizen.  In between these twenty years of the outgoing Century: the uses of these syllabuses have been overrode by unprecedented technological advances (which have generated much progress and many benefits for humanity).  These advances has also raised important moral, social and cultural challenges that makes the two syllabuses out of context on presents realities namely:
A.   Information Technology:
The emergence of the new information and communication technology (representing a genuine revolution) is affecting all the fields of competence in Vocational and Technical.  Comparing the information rich with the information poor states of the nation, there is no doubt that the digital divide exists.  It would be indecent to ignore it as it has contributed to making the two syllabuses out of use.  This gap not only exists between states, but also between towns within a state and between different social groups.
B.   A varied changes in the labour market
There are three economic trends currently occurring in the nation which are also evident in some states, namely:
i.             reduction in the employment opportunities to satisfy the basic requirement of society in the art of Vocational and Technical;
ii.            the growth in the great number of jobs available in the service sector;
iii.           The growth of informal compared with formal employment.

Taken together these three economic trends raised the urgent question of the identity of secondary education in Vocational and Technical.  Some of its aspect are designed to train young people for some kind of job readiness especially Technical, through a system of specialised options proposed initially at the age of 14 or 15 years.  While that of Vocational is based purely on informative insight (which are non-measurable objectives) and appreciation of how vehicle functions.  This is a dangerous trend of producing on the adolescent non-functional education for adults’ life.  If we still believe in up holding to ‘insight and appreciative objectives’ it is being suggested this option Vocational be left at junior secondary level as an introduction to Technical.
CONFLICTING AIMS FOR OUR NATION EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
An excellent statements propounded by Grace (1994) and Tanner (1980) on aim of education are completely conflicting; with our societal present values in technical education. 
Grace (1994) and Tanner (1980) mentioned that, “the main aim of education is to transmit knowledge”.  Which of course the present Nigerian educational contents of most syllabus is hung with the aim of inculcating in the young: the stored knowledge already accumulated, together with the values which have guided men (people) in the past.
However, (today in Nigeria), the effect of global economical factors is facing the nation with a more reasonable aims of education – especially “to nurture the process of discovery”.  The reason is that, the modern Nigerian (people) are face to face with a situation which has never before existed in history: the world of science; of communication (presented in pages 5, 6, 26 and 27); of social relationship.  Similarly, the physicist cannot live by stored knowledge of his science: the public like the physicist will have to put their trust in a manner which new problems and ideas are met, (not in the answer to problems of the past).  
The meaning of the above presentation is that there is the urgent need for a new goal for education.  Learning how to learn, getting ourselves in the process of change and development.  Thus, process education becoming the primary aims of technical syllabuses of our educational system fitted for our present dispensation of educational funds.  The ability to face these challenges is more important than being able to repeat the old.

ACHIEVEMENT AND REWARD FOR THE NIGERIA SOCIETY IN TEACHING METHODOLOGY.
     These new challenges by advance technology (as earlier discused) seems to me will be demanding a radical transformation of teaching and learning methodologies, which will still be firmly tied to rote and verba/ tradition. In this respect, there is also widely different view as observed in Nwachukwu (2001) texts, ranging from the most prescriptive to the most liberal learning methodologies. According to Nwachukwu (2001) educational theories should be derived from national policy; some of the curriculum materials and strategies in this case are based on modern hegemonic theories, especially ‘constructivism’. Ezeji (2001) maintained that choosing diversity implies preserving the freedom to adopt and create the most appropriate methods for every situation or group of students.

In fact, however, many of the problems that have being identified with teaching and learning methodology in secondary education can be dealt with or overcome through arrangement that are apparently unrelated to those methodology. For instance, the choice of the number of curriculum ‘spaces’ each year (whether this are subjects, disciplines, workshops or projects) would determine the opportunities available for organising active and participate occupation to facilitate the training of skills.

§  Rather than being bound to national educational policies, these materials for a flexible Vocational and Technical syllabus as an incorporate components should enable students to engage in different learning strategies and the teachers to adopt different teaching strategies, including a development of research or community activities. In other words, these syllabuses should try to tackle methodological change by re-engineering every school on the basis of the new syllabus material rather than rhetorical change.

OBJECTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL EDUCATION TO OTHER COUNTRY
One of the most prominent complexes features being observed today in Nigeria, is the aggravation of existing social inequalities and the emergence of new ones.
Earlier, the Nigerian secondary education as mentioned by Sir Ahmadu Bello (1962: 35-36) and Michael & Odinchezo (1989: 39-41) is that:
{a}          Manual workers should be excluded from intellectual
training and
 {b}         Intellectuals excluded from manual work.

Which in the earlier 60s to the late 80s, the assumption took a new format as the less intelligent to be sent to Trade and Technical Schools and the intelligent to Grammar, Colleges and Secondary Schools. This is because the earlier curricular and policies of Nigerian school was typical (N. P. E 1973) because the economic then needed people with differentiated type of training, preparing them either for
              i.        Intellectual work or for
              ii.       Manual labour
Therefore in Vocational and Technical education what will be increasingly required to ensure a better quality of life is a solid but constantly renewed intellectual training and an equally solid – equally review – the ability to solve problems. This means that all Vocational and Technical Education streams should contain humanistic and technological component on the one hand, and training opportunities geared to problem –solving on the other. This combination will also ensure that young people learn to think better and how to do better, since the two types of learning are mutually supportive in terms of quality. It would make it possible to find new solutions to problems as they emerged.
EFFECTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
It seem to me that there are at least five economics processes occurring through out the World which are also affecting Nigeria:
1.    A decrease in the quantity of work available and even necessary to satisfy the basic needs of Nigerians.
2.    A rise in number of jobs available in the service sector compare with:
a.    The agricultural and
b.     Industrial sectors.
3.    The growth of informal compare with formal work .
4.    Increasingly rapid change in occupational profiles especially where specific skills are concerned (Nwachukwu 2001) and
5.    A change in the scale of the working life of individual which has gone from local and national to local and supranational.
All these mentioned above raised urgent questions about the aims of the secondary syllabus on Vocational and Technical education in Nigeria. Initially, it was designed (Report on Technical Colleges Organisation for Nigeria 2nd April 1949) to train young people for employment. Yet, is it really necessary, possible or even desirable for secondary education to prepare youngster in Vocational and Technical for the labour market when the later (i.e. labour market) cannot absorb each year’s intake of school leavers who are expected to go out for industrial attachments and visits? Recent scientific and technological advances over the world, however, have been gradually modifying the nature of jobs, in such a way that manual occupations are tending to disappear as a way of life. This being replaced by robotic solutions in broad sectors of the economy, while in others very old –fashioned structure still survive under the surface.
PRESENTMENT ON PROBLEMS AND ISSUES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Over the last 20 years until date the idea has been gaining ground by vocational,
Technical educators; That secondary schools syllabuses in Vocational Tichnical education should consider its challenge to be not so much training for the jobs but rather training to work. It could be probably be argued even more forcefully that education – (that is the whole education) should­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­train individual for a range of activities including productive work. Also, covering such area as cultural creativity and harmonious social or family life and for the alternating predominance of one or other type of activity through out an individuals lifetime (Ezeji 2001, Ma’aji 2000, Nwachukwu 2001, Okoro 2000, Grace 1994, Umeano 1999).

CONCEPT OF TEACHER IN VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL EDUCATION

The vocational teachnical teacher seems to my experience to fit basically the following conceived function (Ma’aji 1984)
1.       Getting student motivation to learn the art of vocational technical
              education in the most (a) Efficient
                                              (b)Economical manner possible.
2.            Teaching the skill of sound citizenship, in the art vocational technical education
3.            Adjusting own role as humanist.
4.            Educating pupils for life
5.            The custodian of morals in vocational technical education.
CONCLUSION
It is from records and books we learned that initially Nigerians came in touch with, foreign merchandise. Then came Religious nationalism before the
assumption of political control by the Imperial Government.
By 1973 to date, syllabuses brought to change mostly by educationists and official on institutional development. The concomitant effects on Vocational and Technical syllabus (title, aims, objectives, contents, material, and related factors) are blurring without much meaning to the economic and social development.       
                                       
Today, these syllabuses on Vocational and Technical do not reflect our present cultural exploitation by the new globalise industrial technology, which is affecting us in many ways. Therefore, there is an urgent need to review the  curriculum to be more functional and meaningful. This by appropriate skill training putting together richness and flexibility of the curricula with reflective homogeneous to a heterogeneous spaces.
 Rather than being control by national policies, education in Vocational and Technical should enable students to prepare for a meaningful adult life: by adopting different teaching strategies for a particular environment, workshop/laboratory, time, and finances. Therefore, the syllabus be re-engineered and transform to fit every school on the basis ofspaces available and need of that society with the need of individual or group of adolescents.
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